This week, I found a need to do this same kind of remote debugging, but for a command-line PHP script. This seems to be something that Eclipse is not already designed to do, as there is no "perpetual listener" available for its debug client. Instructions for remote CLI debugging are available, which showed me that environment variables might be the missing link to getting it working with Eclipse. It turned out to be one of two missing links. The other link was tricking Eclipse into keeping a debug session open (and therefore "listening").
I won't go into the the php.ini settings for xdebug that must be configured for remote debugging, since they're well documented for remote "PHP Web Page" debugging in Eclipse. Performing the remote CLI debugging did not require anything additional on that front.
The xdebug manual shows that the XDEBUG_CONFIG environment variable should contain the xdebug "idekey" setting in it, e.g. export XDEBUG_CONFIG="idekey=session_name". What confused me early on was that this setting was already visible in phpinfo() output, and was set to my shell username. Only later did I discover that it needed to match the XDEBUG_SESSION_START value that Eclipse itself was passing. I believe this value is configurable in Eclipse, though I've not looked it up yet. Given its default value of "ECLIPSE_DGBP", I'd say you might need to personalize it if you need multiple developers all trying to use Eclipse for remote debugging to the same remote server.
Another oddity that I didn't expect was needing to export that same XDEBUG_SESSION_START variable in the remote shell. The last item I had to add to put it all together was including "-f" in the PHP command syntax... just using "php foo.php" wouldn't work, but "php -f foo.php" did.
So, the final syntax to use when starting the PHP script in the remote CLI is:
php -f foo.php
This launches the PHP process with the environment it needs to contact your Eclipse instance... well, again, assuming you'd already configured the php.ini settings for xdebug to allow Eclipse's regular "PHP Web Page" debugging to work with this remote server.
In order for Eclipse to be listening for that debug session coming from the remote CLI script, I had to ahead of time launch a regular "PHP Web Page" debug session for some apache-available PHP file on the remote server, step through to its end, and leave the debug session running. You'll know you've reached this condition if the execution stack showing in Eclipse shows "Remote Launch" instead of a filename on its innermost level, and highlighting this "Remote Launch" will then show you the red STOP button (which means the debug session is still running). One weird thing I've found is that Eclipse forces me to step through the file twice to reach this point. I've created a codeless PHP file to use as a basic launch point for my remote CLI debug sessions, containing nothing but comments reminding me of all this info.
Once you have your Eclipse debug session listening, you execute the remote CLI script at its command shell, and the debugging begins. I have Eclipse already configured to always break on the first line of each file, so that's where the CLI script first breaks. I see it "stuck" in the command shell, and I see all the PHP objects appear in the "Variables" folder in the debug session.
I never found enough info online to get all these planets aligned just right, so I hope this post with it all spelled out proves helpful. After experimenting for several hours with adding more xdebug settings from php.ini into the XDEBUG_CONFIG variable, it was only on an odd whim that I tried setting the idekey to match that XDEBUG_SESSION_START value, and suddenly it worked. After that, I weeded out all the extra fluff I'd been including during my experiments, to finally end up with the syntax above as the minimal command needed.